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The name first appeared by the commission issued by Governor King on 15 March 1804 to Lieutenant Charles Menzies of the Royal Marines, appointing him superintendent of the new settlement.
Passengers on overnight passage to Sydney arrived fresh for the new day, and was preferable to the long and arduous railway journey.
They had been replaced over four decades by the larger coal mining activities further inland at places such as Kurri Kurri and Cessnock.
The English and Australian Copper Company built another substantial works at Broadmeadow circa 1890, and in that decade a zinc smelter was built by Sulphide Corporation Limited inland, by Cockle Creek, known as the Cockle Creek Smelter.
The quality of these first buildings was poor, and only (a much reinforced) breakwater survives.
During this period, in 1816, the oldest public school in Australia was built in East Newcastle.